The most common cause for the need for a joint replacement is osteoarthritis, a degenerative disease mainly affecting middle-aged and older people. The destruction of articular cartilage and adjacent bone tissue characterizes osteoarthritis.
Other forms of arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis and arthritis due to a knee injury, can also lead to knee degeneration. In addition, fractures and ruptures of cartilage or ligaments sometimes provoke irreversible damage to the knee joint.
The decision to operate is made jointly by the doctor and the patient. Considering the cost of knee replacement and the possible surgical risks, local orthopedic doctors may initially suggest conservative treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs and orthopedic assistive devices.
Symptoms- when do you need knee replacement surgery
The main symptoms that are considered when deciding in favor of arthroplasty are:
- Severe knee pain that limits daily activities (pain when climbing stairs and when sitting or standing up)
- Moderate or severe pain while resting during the day or night
- Chronic knee swelling and inflammation
- knee deformity
- Inability to fully flex or straighten a joint
- Lack of response to anti-inflammatory drugs, blockades, and other conservative treatments
- Inability to tolerate complications from pain medications
What does knee replacement surgery include?
Knee joints damaged due to arthritis or trauma can be partially or completely replaced using both traditional open and gentle minimally invasive approaches. Knee replacement involves developing a personalized treatment plan. Every aspect of patient care, from prehospitalization and surgery to inpatient recovery and outpatient rehabilitation, is carefully planned and coordinated by doctors to provide the patient with the best possible therapeutic outcome. Close cooperation with patients and detailed information about each stage of treatment helps to set the right expectations and prepare for the operation, as well as the subsequent recovery and return to normal life. The best knee replacement surgeon in India has the necessary experience and knowledge to help them cope with even the most complex and non-standard cases.
To achieve the maximum therapeutic effect, Indian doctors carefully evaluate the affected knee before the operation. Partial arthroplasty may not significantly improve function if non-replaceable tissue is at least partially damaged. The attending physician will also review all medications the patient is taking. Blood thinners and anti-inflammatory drugs will be adjusted or stopped completely prior to surgery.
Blood tests for liver and kidney function and urinalysis will be evaluated for signs of anemia, infection, or metabolic disorders. A chest x-ray and ECG are done to rule out serious heart and lung conditions that may be a contraindication to surgery or anesthesia. Finally, knee replacement surgery is less likely to have a positive long-term outcome if the patient weighs more than 90 kg. Excess weight puts an additional load on the endoprosthesis, reducing its service life, increasing the risk of dislocation, and complicating the process of postoperative recovery.
Endoprosthetic of the knee joint- Types of surgery
The best knee replacement surgeon in india offers four main types of knee replacement surgery:
- Complete replacement. This is the most common approach. The surgeon completely replaces the surfaces of the femur and tibia, which are connected by a joint.
- Partial replacement. Surgery is possible if only one side of the knee is affected. Another condition for its implementation is healthy knee ligaments. Endoprosthetics of this type can be performed in a minimally invasive way.
- Patella replacement. It involves the replacement of the lower surface of the patella, but some surgeons do not recommend this operation since total joint replacement has a higher success rate.
- Revision arthroplasty. This procedure is required for patients who have previously undergone joint replacement surgery.
The price of a knee replacement largely depends on the type of implant being installed and the surgical approach. Local orthopedic surgeons perform this operation in a variety of ways.
In the standard approach, the surgeon makes an incision 20-30 cm long. After that, he cuts the tendon, raises the patella, and exposes the affected joint. The heads of the femur and tibia are cleaned of destroyed cartilage and bone tissue and replaced with plastic or metal prostheses. In many cases, the lower part of the patella is also replaced. The patient will need 3-5 days of hospitalization and a 12-week recovery period.
Minimally Invasive Surgery
Whenever possible, surgeons favor a minimally invasive approach, which is associated with less joint trauma, less pain, and less risk of blood loss. And this means faster recovery of the patient. The surgeon makes a 7-9 cm incision to gain access to the knee. The main difference between this approach and standard surgery is that the patella is moved to the side rather than flipped over. A small incision provides less trauma to the muscles, and therefore healing occurs faster.
Orthopedic surgeons can use computer technology in both standard and minimally invasive approaches. The doctor enters anatomical data into the computer, and a special program generates a 3-D model of the knee. This approach helps the surgeon position the implant more accurately and extend its life.
How much does knee replacement surgery cost
The cost of the operation may vary. It mainly depends on the type of replacement (complete or partial), the type of endoprosthesis, and the surgical approach used (open or minimally invasive). Given the high quality of medical services provided in local clinics and the procedure’s success rate, the operation’s price here is more than acceptable.